By the mid-nineteenth century,the term icebox had entered the American language,but icewas still only beginning to affect the diet of ordinary citizens in the United States.The ice tradegrew with the growth of cities.Ice was used in hotels,taverns,and hospitals,and by someforward-looking city dealers in fresh meat,fresh fish,and butter.After the Civil War(1861-1865),as ice was used to refrigerate freight cars,it also came into household use.Even before 1880,halfthe ice sold in New York,Philadelphia,and Baltimore,and one-third of that sold in Boston andChicago,went to families for their own use.This had become possible because a new householdconvenience,the icebox,a precursor of the modern refrigerator,had been invented.
Making an efficient icebox was not as easy as we might now suppose.In the early nineteenthcentury,the knowledge of the physics of heat,which was essential to a science of refrigeration,was rudimentary.The commonsense notion that the best icebox was one that prevented the icefrom melting was of course mistaken,for it was the melting of the ice that performed the cooling.Nevertheless,early efforts to economize ice included wrapping the ice in blankets,which kept theice from doing its job.Not until near the end of the nineteenth century did inventors achieve thedelicate balance of insulation and circulation needed for an efficient icebox.
But as early as 1803,an ingenious Maryland farmer,Thomas Moore,had been on the righttrack.He owned a farm about twenty miles outside the city of Washington,for which the villageof Georgetown was the market center.When he used an icebox of his own design to transport hisbutter to market,he found that customers would pass up the rapidly melting stuff in the tubs ofhis competitors to pay a premium price for his butter,still fresh and hard in neat,one-poundbricks.One advantage of his icebox,Moore explained,was that farmers would no longer have totravel to market at night in order to keep their produce cool.
1.What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A)The influence of ice on the diet
(B)The development of refrigeration
(C)The transportation of goods to market
(D)Sources of ice in the nineteenth century
2.According to the passage,when did the word icebox become part of the language of the
(B)sometime before 1850
(C)during the civil war
(D)near the end of the nineteenth century
3.The phrase forward-looking in line 4 is closest in meaning to
4.The author mentions fish in line 4 because
(A)many fish dealers also sold ice
(B)fish was shipped in refrigerated freight cars
(C)fish dealers were among the early commercial users of ice
(D)fish was not part of the ordinary person's diet before the invention of the icebox
5.The word it in line 5 refers to
(B)the Civil War
6.According to the passage,which of the following was an obstacle to the development of the icebox?
(A)Competition among the owners of refrigerated freight cars
(B)The lack of a network for the distribution of ice
(C)The use of insufficient insulation
(D)Inadequate understanding of physics
7.The word rudimentary in line 12 is closest in meaning to
8.According to the information in the second paragraph,an ideal icebox would
(A)completely prevent ice from melting
(B)stop air from circulating
(C)allow ice to melt slowly
(D)use blankets to conserve ice
9.The author describes Thomas Moore as having been on the right track(lines 18-19)to indicate that
(A)the road to the market passed close to Moore's farm
(B)Moore was an honest merchant
(C)Moore was a prosperous farmer
(D)Moore's design was fairly successful
10.According to the passage,Moore's icebox allowed him to
(A)charge more for his butter
(B)travel to market at night
(C)manufacture butter more quickly
(D)produce ice all year round
11.The produce mentioned in line 25 could include
参考答案：BBACC DBCDA B
Television has transformed politics in the United States by changing the way in which information is disseminated,by altering political campaigns,and by changing citizen's patterns of response to politics.By giving citizens independent access to the candidates,television diminished the role of the political party in the selection of the major party candidates.By centering politics on the person of the candidate,television accelerated the citizen's focus on character rather than issues.
Television has altered the forms of political communication as well.The messages on which most of us rely are briefer than they once were.The stump speech,a political speech given by traveling politicians and lasting 11/2 to 2 hours,which characterized nineteenth-century political discourse,has given way to the 30-second advertisement and the 10 second sound bite in broadcast news.Increasingly the audience for speeches is not that standing in front of the politician but rather the viewing audience who will hear and see a snippet of the speech on the news.
In these abbreviated forms,much of what constituted the traditional political discourse of earlier ages has been lost.In 15 or 30 seconds,a speaker cannot establish the historical context that shaped the issue in question,cannot detail the probable causes of the problem,and cannot examine alternative proposals to argue that one is preferable to others.In snippets,politicians assert but do not argue.
Because television is an intimate medium,speaking through it require a changed political style that was more conversational,personal,and visual than that of the old-style stump speech.Reliance on television means that increasingly our political world contains memorable pictures rather than memorable words.Schools teach us to analyze words and print.However,in a word in which politics is increasingly visual,informed citizenship requires a new set of skills.
Recognizing the power of television's pictures,politicians craft televisual,staged events,called pseudo-event,designed to attract media coverage.Much of the political activity we see on television news has been crafted by politicians,their speechwriters,and their public relations advisers for televised consumption.Sound bites in news and answers to questions in debates increasingly sound like advertisements.
1.What is the main point of the passage?
(A)Citizens in the United States are now more informed about political issues because of
(B)Citizens in the United States prefer to see politicians on television instead of in person.
(C)Politics in the United States has become substantially more controversial since the
introduction of television.
(D)Politics in the United States has been significantly changed by television.
2.The word disseminated in line 2 is closest in meaning to
3.It can be inferred that before the introduction of television,political parties
(A)had more influence over the selection of political candidates
(B)spent more money to promote their political candidates
(C)attracted more members
(D)received more money
4.The word accelerated in line 5 is closest in meaning to
5.The author mentions the stump speech in line 7 as an example of
(A)an event created by politicians to attract media attention
(B)an interactive discussion between two politicians
(C)a kind of political presentation typical of the nineteenth century
(D)a style of speech common to televised political events
6.The phrase given way to in line 10 is closest in meaning to
(A)added interest to
(D)been replaced by
7.The word that in line 12 refers to
8.According to the passage,as compared with televised speeches,traditional political discourse was more successful at
(A)allowing news coverage of political candidates
(B)placing political issues within a historical context
(C)making politics seem more intimate to citizens
(D)providing detailed information about a candidates private behavior
9.The author states that politicians assert but do not argue(line 18)in order to suggest that
(A)make claims without providing reasons for the claims
(B)take stronger positions on issues than in the past
(C)enjoy explaining the issue to broadcasters
(D)dislike having to explain their own positions on issues to citizens
10.The word Reliance in line 21 is closest in meaning to
11.The purpose of paragraph 4 is to suggest that
(A)politicians will need to learn to become more personal when meeting citizens
(B)politicians who are considered very attractive are favored by citizens over politicians who are less attractive.
(C)citizens tend to favor a politician who analyzed the issue over one who does not
(D)citizens will need to learn how to evaluate visual political images in order to become better
12.According to paragraph 5,staged political events are created so that politicians can
(A)create more time to discuss political issues
(B)obtain more television coverage for themselves
(C)spend more time talking to citizens in person
(D)engages in debates with their opponents
13.Which of the following statements is supported by the passage?
(A)Political presentations today are more like advertisements than in the past.
(B)Politicians today tend to be more familiar with the views of citizens than in the past.
(C)Citizens today are less informed about a politician's character than in the past.
(D)Political speeches today focus more on details about issues than in the past.
参考答案：DCABC DABAC DBA