英语宾语从句的使用和转化情况

2018年4月11日18:51:50 发表评论 77

在复合句中充当主语成分的句子叫做主语从句。宾语从句,是名词性从句的一种。在主从复合句中充当宾语,位于及物动词、介词或复合谓语之后的从句称为宾语从句。宾语从句分为三类:动词的宾语从句,介词的宾语从句和形容词的宾语从句。

英语宾语从句的使用和转化情况

1.从句为陈述句,常选择引导词that或将that省略,直接与主句相连。

2.从句为一般疑问句,常选择引导词if或whether。在 whether … or not 结构中不能用 if 替换。

3.从句为特殊疑问句,常选择what,when,where,which,who,how等疑问代词、疑问副词作引导词。 注意:当who为主语时,句式为:who+谓语+其他。从句的引导词有很多,如:say, think, wish , hope, see, believe, agree, expect, hear , feel等。

由that 引导的陈述句性的宾语从句,在很多动词如say, think, wish ,hope, see, believe, agree, expect, hear ,feel 等动词后。

连词that只起连接作用,在从句中不做句子的成分,也无词汇意义,在口语中常被省略,但在大多数情况下还是以不省为好,特别是在笔语中。

例:I told him that he was wrong.

在think,believe,suppose,expect等动词引起的宾语从句中,有时谓语尽管是否定意义,却不用否定形式,而将think 等动词变为否定形式。

例:I don’t think you are right. (我认为你做的不对)

在许多带有复合宾语的句子中,that引导的宾语从句经常移到句子的后面,而用it做形式宾语。

例:We think it wrong that he told a lie to everyone (我认为他向每一个人撒谎是错误的)

B,由连词if、 whether 引导的表示“是否…”的宾语从句。Whether,if 在从句中不做句子的成分,一般情况下,whether和if 可以替换。

例:I don’t know if/whether he will come tomorrow.

The teacher asked if/whether we had finished the experiment.

宾语从句的简化情况

1、当主句谓语动词是hope, decide, wish, choose, agree, promise等,且宾语从句的主语与主句主语一致时,宾语从句可简化为不定式结构。例如:

Li Ming hopes he will be back very soon. →Li Ming hopes to be back very soon.

We decided that we would help him. →We decided to help him.

2、当主句谓语动词是know, learn, remember, forget, tell等动词,且主句主语与从句主语一致时,宾语从句可简化为“疑问词+不定式”结构。例如:

She has forgotten how she can open the window. →She has forgotten how to open the window.

3、当主句谓语动词是tell, ask, show, teach等动词,且后带双宾语,从句主语和间接宾语一致时,宾语从句可简化为“疑问词+不定式”结构。例如:

Could you tell me how I can get to the station? →Could you tell me how to get to the station?

4、当主句的谓语动词是order(命令),require(需要)等时,如果主句和从句的主语不一致,宾语从句可简化为“名词(代词)+不定式”结构。例如:

The headmaster ordered that we should start at once. → The headmaster ordered us to start at once.

5、某些动词后的宾语从句,可以用介词加动名词(短语)等其他形式简化。例如:

He insisted that he should go with us. →He insisted on going with us.

The poor boy doesn't know when and where he was born. →The poor boy doesn't know the time and the place of his birth.

宾语从句引导词不能省略情况

(1)当句中的动词后接多于两个由that引导的宾语从句时,第一个that可省,但后面的that不可省。He said (that) you were too young to understand the matter and that he was asked not to tell you.

(2)当主句的谓语动词与that宾语从句之间有插入语时,that一般不可省。Just then I noticed, for the first time, that our master was wearing his fine green coat and his black silk cap.

(3)当that从句是双宾语中的直接宾语时,that不可省。I can’t tell him that his mother died.

注意事项:许多带复合宾语的句子,that引导的宾语从句经常移到句子后部,而用it作形式宾语。I find it necessary that we should do the homework on time.

需要额外注意的是,由whether 和 ,If 引导的宾语从句

由whether(if)引导的宾语从句,实际上是一般疑问句演变而来的。意思是“是否”。宾语从句要用陈述句语序。一般说来,在宾语从句中whether与if可以互换使用,但在特殊情况下if与whether是不能互换的。

 

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