初中英语语法大全-主从复合句:宾语从句

2018年4月13日17:37:37 发表评论 285

第一节 宾语从句

语法要点

宾语从句是一种名词性从句,在句中可作及物动词、介词或形容词的宾语。

初中英语语法大全-主从复合句:宾语从句

根据引导宾语从句的连词不同,宾语从句可分为三类:

●由that引导的宾语从句。that只有语法作用,在口语和非正式文体中可以省略。

●由连接代词who, whom, whose, what, which和连接副词when, where, why, how引导的宾语从句。这些连接代词和连接副词在宾语从句中充当某个成分。

●由if或whether引导的宾语从句。if和whether在句中的意思是“是否”。

学习宾语从句应注意:连词和代词的选择,语序和时态的一致。

宾语从句的三种类型:

类型 例句 备注

that引导 I am sure (that) he will succeed.

I hear (that) physics isn’t easy.

that可省略;

由陈述句变化而来

连接代词who, whom, whose, what, which和连接副词when, where, why, how引导 He asked whose handwriting was the best.

I don’t know why the train is late.

Can you tell me how I can get to the zoo?

I don’t know what’s the matter with Bob?

连接词担任句子成分;

由特殊疑问句变化而来

续表

类型 例句 备注

if或whether引导 I want to know if / whether he lives there.

He asked me whether / if I could help him.

If和whether意为“是否”;

由一般疑问句变化而来

特别提示:

·宾语从句的人称一致。例如:

She said, “I am much better than before. ”→She said that she was much better than before.

·宾语从句的语序应为陈述句语序。例如:

Can you tell me how I can get to the railway station?

·主从句的时态要统一。主句是一般过去时,从句应该用相应的过去时态。但如果宾语从句的内容是客观真理,其时态仍用一般现在时。例如:

He said that he would go back to the U. S. soon. (过去将来时)

Our teacher said that January is the first month of the year. (客观真理)

·由连接词whether/if引导宾语从句时,whether和if 常可互换,但下列场合一般用whether:

介词后的宾语从句:I’m thinking of whether he’ll come.

与or not连用:I don’t know whether I should go or not.

与动词不定式连用:We don’t know whether to go or stay.

跟在动词discuss后面:They discussed whether they should hold the meeting.

· 动词think, believe, suppose, imagine, expect引导的宾语从句,需要表示否定意义,不在宾语从句中否定,在主句中否定。 例如:

I don’t think that English is easy.

I don’t suppose she can get so much money.

直击考点

单项填空。

1. —Excuse me. Could you tell me     later on?

—Wait a minute. It is coming in ten minutes.

A. if the next train arrives       B. if the next train will arrive

C. when the next train arrives  D. when will the next train arrive

(07年 临沂)

【答案】 B

【解析】 从答句It is coming in ten minutes(十分钟后到)可知,询问内容是下一班火车将要到达的时间,从句要用一般将来时,宾语从句应该是陈述句语序。

2. —Did Mr White tell you    ?

—Yes. He said he went there in 2003.

A. when he traveled to Tibet  B. how he goes to Wuhan

C. where he spent his holidays  D. why did he visit Kunming

(07年 福州)

【答案】 A

【解析】 从答句he went there in 2003可以推断此题的宾语从句与when 有关。

3. I don’t know    .

A. where does he come from  B. what is his name

C. how old he is  D. when will he leave

(07年 南京)

【答案】 C

【解析】 宾语从句应该是陈述语序。

4. —Can you tell me    ?

—Two weeks ago.

A. when you bought the toys  B. who did you buy the toys for

C. how much the toys cost  D. how many toys did you buy

(07年 南通)

【答案】 A

【解析】 从回答内容Two weeks ago可知,询问内容与when有关,宾语从句应该是陈述句语序。

5. —Do you know    ?

—He has gone to the museum.

A. where he lives  B. where he is

C. how he is getting on  D. what’s wrong with him

(07年 盐城)

【答案】 B

【解析】 根据答句He has gone to the museum(他去博物馆了),询问内容与where有关;同样,根据答句内容,问句内容不应该是“他住哪儿?”。

6. —Could you tell me     tomorrow morning?

—Well, it will start at 9:00 o’clock.

A. when the meeting will start  B. where will the meeting start

C. where the meeting starts  D. when the meeting would start

(06年 河北)

【答案】A

【解析】因为回答内容为具体时间,排除B和C选项;因为他们是在谈论明天会议召开的时间,所以应使用一般将来时时态,从而判定A为正确选项。

7. Our head teacher saw the empty seat next to me and asked    .

A. where has Jeff gone  B. where did Jeff go

C. where Jeff has been  D. where Jeff had gone

(06年 潍坊)

【答案】D

【解析】此题考查学生对宾语从句时态的理解。首先由宾语从句要用陈述语序,确定备选范围是C,D;因为座位空了,说明Jeff不在,应用has gone来表达;主句的谓语动词是asked,从句应用与过去有关的时态,故只有D正确。

8. —Could you tell me    ?

—Yes. To take back my dictionary.

A. why did you come here  B. when do you come here

C. why you came here  D. when you come here

(06年 南通)

【答案】C

【解析】从To take back my dictionary(来拿回我的词典)可知,询问内容是来这儿的目的,而不是时间,根据宾语从句的语序要求,选C作为正确答案。

9. Don’t lose heart! I’m sure you can get     through hard work.

A. what you want  B. why you want

C. where you want  D. how you want

(06年 盐城)

【答案】A

【解析】该题考查的是宾语从句连接词的选择。从句意“别灰心。我相信通过努力工作,你能得到你所想要的东西”,确定应用what作连接词。

10. —Can you see    ?

—No. Let’s go and have a look. Maybe we can help them.

A. what was happening there  B. what are they doing there

C. what are they talking there  D. what is happening there

(06年 黄冈)

【答案】D

【解析】根据宾语从句的语序要求,排除B、C选项;Let’s go and have a look表明事情正在发生,所以应使用现在进行时;what在从句中作主语。

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