“极致”秘密:日本料理是如何征服西方的? | 双语阅读

2018年6月9日11:47:24 发表评论 23

拥有着"寿司之神"、无数甜品和全世界最多米其林餐厅的日本无疑是全球众多食客打卡必去地之一。那么,日本料理又是如何远传海外的呢?

“极致”秘密:日本料理是如何征服西方的? | 双语阅读

1980年,《日本料理:极简餐饮艺术》在美国出版,至今仍是西方食客了解日本料理的圣经,让日本餐饮声名鹊起。

Photo credit: Getty Images

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Of all the culinary changes that have taken hold in the UK in the past 20 years, the adoption of Japanese food has been the most unexpected.

过去20年里,在英国生根发芽的所有外来餐饮,就数日式餐饮的“英国化”最为出乎预料。

Perhaps the trend started in 1992 with Alan Yau’s Wagamama, where British diners were introduced to slurping noodles from a bowl. Or was it in 1994, when Moshi Moshi established sushi conveyor belts? Maybe it was in about 2000, when supermarkets began selling prepacked sushi as the new sandwich.

也许,是始于丘德威(Alan Yau)在英国开设日式拉面道(Wagamama)的1992年(教会英国食客咕噜咕噜吃碗面)?或者是始于Moshi Moshi在英国开设寿司连锁店的1994年?抑或说,是始于超市把包装好寿司当作新式三明治售卖的2000年?

① slurp [slɜːp] v. 出声地吃或喝;啧啧地响

例句:The ideal nowcast would slurp up data on payroll, invoices and payments received in real time from every business in the country. 理想的短时预测将需要美国所有企业提供工资单、发票和付款方面的实时数据。

Screenshot: FTC

But while all of these played a part in transforming sushi and noodles from niche to known, few in the UK have eaten anything other than popular adaptations of one or two Japanese dishes. There is little awareness of the rich traditions and specialised techniques of Japanese cuisine.

虽说它们把寿司与拉面从小众餐饮变得家喻户晓,但除了吃过一、二种“改良版”的日式餐外,吃过正宗日本餐的英国人却是凤毛麟角。英国人对日本饮食的悠久传统与特色烹制手法知之甚少。

For this, the ultimate source is a 500-page hardback book, Japanese Cooking: A Simple Art, by Shizuo Tsuji.

辻静雄(Shizuo Tsuji)所著洋洋500页的精装书——《日本料理:极简餐饮艺术》(Japanese Cooking: A Simple Art)就是了解日本料理的最佳入门书。

② niche [niːʃ] n. 壁龛;舒适或称心的工作(或生活等);(产品的)商机;市场定位;生态位

例句:The Congressional Budget Office released a report in 2007 into long-term joblessness, which was at the time something of a niche topic. 国会预算办公室在2007年发布了一份长期失业报告,当时这还是个有些小众的话题。

Screenshot: FTC

Published in 1980 in the US, the book laid bare“the secrets of the simple yet complex art of Japanese cooking” for “the first time”. Nearly 40 years after publication, it is still widely regarded as the definitive guide for western readers.

该书于1980年在美国出版,“首次”娓娓讲述了“日本料理简约而不简单的餐饮艺术秘诀”。出版近40年后,它仍是广大西方读者了解日本料理的权威读本。

③ lay bare 揭示;表露

例句:The gradual withdrawing of state support, experts fear, could lay bare hitherto concealed flaws in the east German economy. 专家担心,逐步撤消政府支持,可能暴露出东德经济迄今一直隐藏着的缺陷。

Screenshot: amazon.co.uk

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Its author, Tsuji, was born in 1933, the son of a baker. Described by food writer Paul Levy as the “chief foodie of Japan”, Tsuji had a degree in French literature and worked as a journalist before training as a cook in Japan and France.

该书作者辻静雄出生于1933年,其父是位面包师。被美食作家保罗•列维(Paul Levy)誉为“日本首席美食家”的他拥有法国文学学位。转行当厨师前,曾在日本与法国当记者。

In 1960 he returned home and took over his father-in-law’s domestic cookery school in Osaka. Under his direction, the “Ecole Technique Hôtelière Tsuji” taught Japanese, French and Chinese hautecuisine to generations of would-be chefs. By 1983 the school had 150 teachers, and when Tsuji died in 1993 there were 4,500 students and 17 sites, including two in France.

1960年,回到日本的他接管了岳父在大阪的烹饪学校。在他的管理下,辻静雄酒店管理学校(Ecole Technique Hôtelière Tsuji)向几代厨艺生传授日式、法式以及中式高级烹饪术。截止1983年,学校已拥有150名教师;到1993年辻静雄去世时,学生数已达4500人,并开设了17家分校,其中2家在法国。

④ foodie ['fuːdɪ] n. 美食家;吃货

例句:It is intimidating to eat with such an obvious foodie. 与这样一位显然是美食家的人一起吃饭,有些令人胆怯。

⑤ haute [əʊt] adj. 高级的;昂贵的

例句:Fashionable academics teach that science is but a collection of socially conditioned opinions, as changeable as haute couture. 时髦的学术组织认为科学只不过是一些一定社会条件下的观点,就像高级时装一样,说变就变。

⑥ would-be ['wudbi:] adj. 想要成为...的

例句:The second hurdle for a would-be lawyer is the bar exam itself. 对于想成为律师的人来说,第二个障碍就是司法考试本身。

Screenshot: tsuji.ac.jp

Japanese Cooking: A Simple Art is a substantial cookery book — there are 220 recipes — but it is also a love letter to Japanese food and culture.

《日本料理:极简餐饮艺术》是内容详实的食谱(共有220道烹饪配方),但它也是讴歌日本餐饮文化的力作。

According to Tsuji, the national cuisine was born ofausterity, at a time when “impoverished but cultivated court nobles learnt to delight in the offerings of each changing season”. As a result, seasonality, “the pristine freshness of materials” and “the beauty of presentation” remain the core principles.

辻静雄说,日式烹饪诞生于经济紧缩时代,当时“生活拮据但富有教养的宫廷贵族怡然自得于各个时令季的‘自然馈赠’”。因此,讲究时令(注重“食材原生态新鲜”以及“菜品视觉享受”)仍是日本餐饮的核心原则。

Tsuji assures the reader that making Japanese food “is rather like playing the piano”. As long as the rules are followed, exercises completed and fingering is correct, “you can put a little rubatointo your Chopin, varying the tempo to suit your own artistic inclination”.

辻静雄告诉读者:制作日式美食“酷似弹奏钢琴”。遵循规则,加之勤学苦练与方法得当,“就能弹奏出自己理解的肖邦(Chopin)——适度改变节奏节拍以适应自己的艺术倾向”。

⑦ austerity [ɒ'sterɪtɪ] n. 朴素;(经济)紧缩;苦行

例句:Given taxes cannot be raised enough, America has no choice but to enter our own age of austerity, via long-term spending reductions. 既然没法实现幅度充分的增税,美国除了步入紧缩时代以外,别无办法,也就是说只能通过长期削减开支。

⑧ impoverished [ɪm'pɒvərɪʃt] adj. 赤贫的;贫乏的

例句:Years of war and mismanagement have left Congo one of Africa's most impoverished countries, in spite of its mineral wealth. 尽管刚果拥有丰富的矿藏,但多年的战乱与管理不善,使其沦落为非洲最贫穷的国家之一。

⑨ pristine ['prɪstiːn] adj. 崭新的;未开发的;原始的

例句:Three-quarters of a million tourists flock to the pristine, white beaches every year - but this booming industry has come at a price. 每年,全球有75万名游客来到纯净的马尔代夫海滩,但繁荣的旅游业也让当地付出了代价。

⑩ rubato [rʊ'bɑːtəʊ] adj. 随意增减拍子的 n. 节奏自由的演奏风格;弹性速度

例句:What these people cannot grasp is that in tempo rubato in an Adagio, the left hand should go on playing in strict time. 这些人无法领会的是,慢板乐章中的弹性速度,左手得按拍子严格行进。

Photo credit: Getty Images

The main body of Japanese Cooking comprises two sections — the first introduces the key concepts of Japanese dining and basic methods of food preparation, while the second is a collection of recipes.

《日本料理:极简餐饮艺术》主要内容分为两部分——第一部分介绍了日式餐饮的核心理念以及基本烹饪方法;第二部分则是各种配方荟萃。

There are 16 pages of colour plates. Aware that ingredients might be hard to find in 1980s America, the book includes an appendix of “Oriental Food Shops and Sources”. New Yorkers had 37 shops to choose from, while the residents of South Dakota had just one.

全书共有16页彩色插图。辻静雄意识到有些食材在上世纪80年代的美国可能难以买到,因此该书在书后附了“东方食材店”(Oriental Food Shops and Sources)名录。纽约本地人可去当城的37家东方食材店购买,而南达科他州的居民则只有一家东方食材店。

Photo credit: Getty Images

In Japan, explains Tsjui, “the whole meal is a symphony of carefully orchestrated flavour, colour, texture and seasonal appropriateness”. Chapter titles include “Ingredients”, “Utensils”, “Selecting and Cutting Fish”, “Grilling” and “Steaming”.

辻静雄解释道:“日本菜讲究色香味与时令食材的精妙编配”。全书包括了“食材”、“器具”、“选切鱼”、“烤”以及“蒸”等章节。

⑪ orchestrate ['ɔːkɪstreɪt] vt. 精心安排;编配(或创作)管弦乐曲;策划;密谋

例句:The company is in the throes of a state-orchestrated merger to create the country's biggest player. 该公司正在国家的鼓励下进行并购,以期组建中国最大的钢铁公司。

Photo credit: Getty Images

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Detailed, precise and thorough, Japanese Cookingis as much reference book as cookery book. Unfamiliar ingredients such as agar-agar, kinome (young leaves of prickly ash used as an aromatic garnish) and trefoil (a member of the parsley family) are described; four pages are dedicated to unravelling the qualities of bean curd (tofu), 31 pages to techniques and recipes for yakimono (grilling and pan frying), and 10 pages to nimono (simmering).

《日本料理:极简餐饮艺术》内容详尽、精准以及全面,它既是烹饪指南,也是最佳参考书。琼脂、kinome(作为增香装饰用的花椒嫩叶)以及三叶草(属欧芹科)等不为人所知的食材在书中都有详细介绍,书中有4页专讲如何辨明豆腐质量高低,31页专讲烤鱼的秘诀,还有10页则专讲海鲜杂烩炖法。

⑫ simmer ['sɪmə] v. 煨;用文火炖;内心充满;即将爆发 n. 即将沸腾状态;炖;小火煨

例句:There seems to be a lack of consensus in the Kremlin about how to counter simmering instability in its outlying regions. 对于如何对付边远地区日益升温的不稳定状态,克里姆林宫似乎缺乏共识。

Photo credit: Getty Images

There are some usual suspects — yakitori and tempura, for example — but the vast majority of recipes seldom feature in the Japanese westernrepertoire. More’s the pity: butter-fried clams, sake-steamed abalone, grilled mushrooms with ponzu sauce and crushed burdock with sesame dressing sound mouth-watering. This food requires time, care and patience to execute.

但读者仍会存有疑惑——如烤鸡串与天麸罗(tempura)——但绝大多数配方没有成为西方日式餐饮的特色菜。黄油炸蛤蚌、清酒蒸鲍鱼、酱炸蘑菇以及芝麻酱牛蒡这些垂涎欲滴的日本菜未列入菜单则更是西方食客的憾事。这些美食做起来费工费时又费神。

Take steam-simmered octopus (tako yawaraka-ni), which calls for the octopus to be tenderised by rubbing it with grated radish, steaming it in stock and resting it for eight hours.

就拿清蒸章鱼(tako yawaraka-ni)来说吧,要使章鱼肉质嫩,就得用碎萝卜擦磨、现蒸后再凉置上8小时。

⑬ repertoire ['repətwɑː] n.(总称某人的)可表演项目;(某人的)全部才能

例句:Fishing and hunting are not part of his typical repertoire. 钓鱼和打猎并不是他的拿手项目。

⑭ mouth-watering ['mauθ'wɔ:təriŋ] adj. 令人垂涎的

例句:Mixing together a little food and a lot of talent is the perfect recipe for some mouth-watering inspiration. 一点点食物再加上丰富的才华就是让您馋涎欲滴的完美秘诀。

Photo credit: Getty Images

Tsuji wrote Japanese Cooking to preserve, share and celebrate the richness of his national cuisine. Since its publication, a number of things have changed. The popularity of Japanese food is now well established — in the UK sashimi is no longer regarded as “almost bordering on the barbaric” — and according to market research, one in five adults now enjoys eating Japanese food.

辻静雄著书的目的是保存、共享以及讴歌日本传统烹饪的博大精深。该书出版后,日本餐饮今非昔比。日本饮食的知名度如今已是声名鹊起——在英国,生鱼片不再被视作“近乎蛮夷之食”——据市场调研,五分之一的英国成年人喜食日式餐。

In 2013 the cuisine was added to Unesco’s Intangible Cultural Heritage list. Nevertheless, Tsuji’s culinary bible is a sobering reminder of how little the west still knows about Japanese food — and a tempting invitation to change this.

2013年,日本料理被列入联合国非物质文化遗产名录(Unesco’s Intangible Cultural Heritage list)。然而,辻静雄的餐饮大作也清醒提醒着世人:西方对日式饮食知之者仍是寥寥无几——它更是发出一份改变上述趋势的“诱人请柬”。

⑮ border on 接近;接壤

例句:For Renren, even if it has lost its post-IPO gains, those multiples border on the fantastic. 对于人人网而言,即使它丧失了IPO之后的涨幅,其估值水平仍然高得近乎神奇。

⑯ sobering ['səʊbərɪŋ] adj. 令人警醒的;使人冷静的

例句:"They have had a somewhat sobering experience of trying to do that," he said. 他说:“他们在此方面已有了一次经历,从某种程度上说,这次经历发人深省。”

Photo credit: Getty Images

最后,小F奉上小小一份日本料理相关词汇总结(部分为罗马音)~

烤物 Broiled Dish

煮物 Stewed Dish

炸物 Fried Dish

锅物 Nabe

醋拌物 Vinegarish Dish

卷物 Roll Sushi

清汤 Clear Soup

味增汤 Miso Soup

寿司 Sushi

生鱼片 Sashimi

拉面 Ramen

天妇罗 Tempura

串烧 Yakitori

乌冬面 & 荞麦面 Udon & Soba

盖饭 Donburi

饭团 Onigiri

清酒 Sake

煮什锦蔬菜 Stewed Assorted Seasonal Vegetables

盐烤秋刀鱼 Grilled Sanma with Salt

蒸鸡蛋羹 Steamed Egg Custard

鳗鱼饭 Grilled Eel over Rice

肉豆腐 Simmered Tofu & Beef

鳕鱼籽拌墨鱼 Cuttlefish with Codfish Roe

天妇罗盖饭 Tempura Selection on Rice

豚骨拉面 Pork Bone Ramen

加州手卷 California Roll

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